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|State of Minorities in Iran
State of Minorities in Iran
Objective and aims
The main aim is to introduce minorities of Iran to international community. It can be a unique resource for activists, journalists, academics and world decision makers. It will provide a profile of contemporary situation of minorities and indigenous people of Iran . Iranian rulers should come clear firstly; to recognize all minorities of Iran constitutionally, and secondly; to consider their cultural & civil rights, political demands and human rights and implement them on the ground in practice.
Why should people be discriminated against because they are minority? Everybody has something positive to contribute; working together and respecting each others, we all learn from one another in favor of prosperity and progress for a better life.
Who is minority?
Those ethnic, religious and linguistic communities, who may not necessarily be numerical minorities but their rights, are denied by state rulers and they are non-dominant. Those indigenous people, tribal, and migrant nomadic people (Ashayer), who do not wish to be classified as minorities for various reasons but nationalities, are also non-dominant (9).
Minorities of Iran
Iran is an ethno-linguistically and religiously diverse country. Shia majority amounts about 82% and Sunni minority about 13% of the state total population and the other religions are about 5%. The Sunnis includes; Baluchis, Turkmen, and large number of the Kurds, Talyshis and some Arabs (16).
Minorities of Iran are not homogenous, most of them are from different nationalities; they face further oppression and marginalization due to religious, cultural & linguistics, illiteracy, politic affairs, poverty, gender and some other factors. Government has also implemented a systematic and organized policy of integration of all minorities, and assimilation of their culture and languages (22).
Minorities in Iran are the poorest and most marginalized people in the society. They lack access to political power, with no political parties and no cultural forums, face discrimination and severe human rights abuses, and there is development policies imposed upon them. What they want is: their basic rights to be protected and promoted by international community. It is crystal clear that recognition of minority and indigenous peoples' rights is crucial to establishing and maintaining just, stability and peaceful societies (9).
There are 11 main ethno-linguistic minorities in Iran , which is as following:
Persian ( Fars or Pars)
Lur & Bakhtiyari
Figure 1: map of minorities in Iran .
The term Persia was adopted by the West through the Greeks and was used as an official name for Iran until 1935. Therefore, Iran 's history, will label many non-Persian Iranian’s as Persians, which is untrue and unfair. And also historically the use of the term "Persian" has included all the various regional languages of Iran , which is also untrue, because other main ethno-linguistic minority groups are not Persian (16).
Persian people’s language is called Farsi (Parsi or Persi), which is used as an official language and also in academic curricula currently (all other languages are totally banned in schools and academia) in Iran . Persian people mainly live in some of the State’s central Provinces such as Isfahan (about 3.7 million), Kerman (about 2.5 million), Qom (about 0.5 million), central province (about 1.3 million), Fars Province (about 3.7 million), Razavi & southern Khorasan Province (about 3.5 million), Semnan Province (about 0.6 million), Yazd Province (about 1 million) and also in Tehran (5 million, about 36% of Tehran’s population is Persian), and about 3 to 4 million are scattered in other provinces across the state. All of the borders’ provinces of Iran are not Persian (7, Figure 1, 3 & 4, Graph 1&2, Table 1).
Persian ethnic’s population in Iran estimates roughly around 34.5% of all Iran’s population which in figure become about 25 million from the total population of about 71million (Table 1).
Persian people are most heavily concentrated in central, south central and North-eastern of Iran . The dialects of Farsi speakers are based on the Provinces they live, such as: Tehrani, Shirazi, Qazvini, Hamadani, Kashani, Isfahani, Semnani, Kermani, Araki, jahromi, Shahrudi, Kazeruni, Mashadi, Bushehri, Yazdi, and Bandari.
Farsi is hugely dominated upon all other languages as the central government has got an organized and systematic policy by spending large amount on it. It is needless to say that the minority’s revenue and their natural resources income are used against them by ultra centralised government. All cultural and civil activities across the state must be in Farsi; this discrimination is marginalising minorities’ talents and squandering minorities’ cultures, languages and traditions.
Cyrus the Great (Persian hero), 560 BC.
From Pasargad tribe, Hakhamanesh clan.
2 - Azeri Turks
Azeri people speak Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri Turkish. The most majority of Azerbaijanis are Shi'a Muslims.
Iranian Azerbaijanis mainly live in the Northwest provinces such as: East Azerbaijan Province, West Azerbaijan Province [Eastern part of it, which is marked from the middle line of Urmiya Lake (meaning the eastern part of the median course of the Lake)], Ardabil Province, Zanjan Province, Qazvin Province, Hamadan Province (northern part of it) and also many Azeris live in Tehran (23, 16, Map1).
There are an estimated of 28 to 30 million Azerbaijanis in the world, but census figures are difficult to verify. A diaspora Azeri, possibly numbering in millions, is found in neighboring countries and around the world (8, 14).
The vast majority of Azeris live in Azerbaijan Republic (Approximately 8 million) and Azerbaijan of Iran. About 19 million Azeris live in Iran , mainly in the Northwestern provinces and also in Tehran .
The populations of Iranian Azeri Turks in Azeri dominated cities are: East Azerbaijan (3.600.000), West Azerbaijan Province [about less than 50% of the Province is Azeri; in figure it becomes about; 1.500.000, [Eastern part of the Province is Azeri’s inhabited which is historically marked from the middle line of Urmiya Lake (meaning the Eastern part of the median course of the Lake, there is a debate on this between either sides’ elites)], Ardabil province (1.250.000), Zanjan province (about 980.000), Qazvin Province (about 1.150.000), Hamadan Province (if about 50% of the province be Azeri Turks; in figure it becomes about 850.000), and about 33% of Tehran (Population of Tehran is 13.450.000) is Azeri Turks; which in figure becomes about 4.5 million (4.500.000), (7, figure 3 & 4, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
The sum of all Azeri Turks in dominated Provinces becomes about 14 million (14.000.000). According to some nationalist Azeris; there are about 2.5 to 4.5 million Azeri Turks who are scattered in other provinces across the state and also far suburban of Tehran . If this be the case, then all population of Azeri Turks in Iran is about 18.5 million (about 25% of the State population is Azeri Turks).
While population estimates in Azerbaijan Republic are considered reliable due to regular censuses taken, the figures for Iran remain questionable. Since the early twentieth century, successive Iranian governments have always avoided publishing statistics on ethnic minorities for political gains.
Generally, until the Pahlavi ruling period in the twentieth century, "the identity of Iran was not exclusively Persian, but supra-ethnics". Resentment came with Pahlavi policies of making one state /one nation, and by that the minorities’ languages and cultures suppressed with brutality in local government, local areas, schools, and totally banned in the press and audio/video media. However with the advent of the Iranian Revolution in 1979, emphasis shifted away from nationalism as the new government highlighted religion (Shiism) as the main unifying factor.
Within the Islamic Revolutionary government there emerged an Azeri nationalist faction led by Ayatollah Kazem Shariatmadari, who advocated greater regional autonomy, 1979 AC. He wanted the constitution to be revised to include secularists and opposition parties; this was denied. On today there is some civil unrest due to the systematic policies of the Iranian government upon Azeris demands.
Azeri musicians in performance. Map 1: Iran ’s Azeri inhabited region.
3 – Kurds
3(A) – Kurds; in the West & Northwest of Iran
The lack of an internationally recognised state of Kurdistan has not prevented the Kurds to consider themselves as a separate nation from the countries their territory is divided amongst. The just struggles of Kurdish nation in the last few decades for the recognition of their rights are well documented.
The oil reserves of Kurdistan region in Iran is in Kermanshah . Kurdistan has got a fertile land.
Kurdish wedding dance, Sanandaji. Kurdish girl from Mahabad.
Although Kurdistan is a geographically homogenous land, politically it was first divided in 16th century amongst the two powers of the time, the Safavi and the Ottomans Empires. After the First World War, 400 years after its first division, Kurdistan was further divided by the Powers of the day ( France and Britain ) amongst the three newly established states of Turkey , Iraq and Syria . This was contrary to the agreement of Sever which recognised the formation of an independent state in Kurdistan . The division of Kurdistan into four parts was formalised in 1923 in the treaty of Luzan.
Unfortunately, those countries that Kurdistan is divided amongst are reluctant to admit the presence of Kurds in the country (except in post Saddam Iraq ). Only Iran Officially names a province as Kurdistan, which is a small portion of the Kurdish territory in Iran . In Turkey and Syria the presence of Kurds in the country was totally denied until recent years. In Iraq although the 1958 constitution recognised the Kurd and Arab to live side by side in the country, all their right was denied during the previous regime and they were subjected to genocide. After the first Gulf war of 1991, the Kurds in Iraq have entered a new era. The favourable international situation has resulted in a de-facto Kurdish government in Iraqi Kurdistan to be formed.
As it is explained above, although Kurdistan has been divided into four parts, Kurdish people during these long years have used every opportunity to express their dissatisfaction and struggled for their just rights. Contemporary Kurdish history is full of stories of Struggle, hope, disappointment, devastation of the land and sacrifice of their youth for a better life for the people in their ancestral land.
The Kurds of Iran since 19th century have had their fair share of the struggle for a just society in Iran . The uprising of Sheikh Ubaidullah and Hamza Aga Mangur (1880 – 1881 AC), the uprising of Ismail Simko (1920 AC) as well as few smaller regional uprising are examples of this struggle. Through out the contemporary history of Iran , Kurdistan has been a bastion for the progressive forces within Iran (Figure 1, 2).
After the establishment of the constitutional monarchy in 1906 AC, some of the demands of the nationalities of Iran , such as formation of regional assemblies were included in the constitution but have never been implemented.
Through out the 50 years rein of the Pahlavi dynasty ultra centralisation of power, militarisation of the region was the main government policy, and the struggle of Kurds for their rights continued. Only briefly during the Second World War, when Iran was occupied by the allies, the Kurds took this opportunity and formed their first structured political organisation (Komalai - J K) which later became the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP). Under the leadership of the KDP in February 1945 an autonomous republic in Iranian part of the Kurdistan was formed which lasted 11 month. The leadership of the republic, Qazi Mohammed and his comrades were executed in 1946 by Reza Shah’s government. Despite its short life, the Kurds still look at the Republic as a turning point in the history of Kurdish nation (22).
Kurdish people along with other nationalities of Iran fully participated in the revolution of 1979, which resulted in overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of a republic. They thought this is an ideal opportunity to resolve all the problems with the new government and to put an end to decades of injustice. Despite plenty of good will from the Kurdish part and many months of negotiation, the newly established Islamic government imposed an unwanted war on the Kurdish people which resulted in many death and destruction. Now 29 years later, Kurdish people in Iran are not any closer to realising their dream of a democratic Iran that recognise the rights of all Iranian minorities.
Accurate population censuses are difficult to come by, as the consecutive governments in Iran distorted the published figures for their benefits. The total population of Kurds in Iran (Kurdistan regions and other major cities in Iran , except Khorasan region) are estimated to be more than 7 million, which is about 10% of the total population of Iran (1, Figure 1 & 2).
The most majority of Kurds live in five provinces: Kurdistan Province(1.7 million), West Azerbaijan Province [more than 50% of the Province is Kurds; in figure it becomes more than 1.500.000, (Western part of the Province is Kurdish territory which is historically marked from the middle line of Urmiya Lake (meaning the Western part of the median course of the Lake)], Kermanshah province (2.2 million), Ilam Province [about 0.25 million (Northern part of the province)], Hamadan Province [about 0.4 million (western part of it)], and Luristan Province [about 0.2 million (Northern part of Luristan province)], all in the west of Iran. The total population of Kurds in the Kurdish dominated area in the Northwest and West of Iran estimates between 6 and 6.5 million (7, Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
There are a considerable number of Kurds that estimates approximately 1.5 -2 million who is living in Major cities in Iran, such as: Tehran (about 7% of Tehran & Karaj’s population is Kurds), Varamin and Firoozkoh, Mazendaran Province (countryside of Cities such as: Daylaman, Sari, Kurdkoy and Noor), Gilan Province (Cities such as: Kalardasht, Roodbar, Manjil, Hashtpar and Assalem regions), and Kuhak region in the South of Qom.
There are also about 1.5 million Kurds who are living in Khorasan Province in North-east of Iran. This is descendents of the Kurds who were forcefully resettled there approximately 400 years ago by the Iranian government of the time.
The total population of Kurds in all over the state estimates between 8.5 to 9 million, which is about 12% of the total population of Iran .
Figure 2: Kurdish inhabited regions.
3(B) - Khorasani Kurds
Kurdish tribes forced to move to Khorasan region / North-east of Iran during Safavian Dynasty about 1598 AC (or 1602 AC according to some texts), (Figure 2).
By the beginning of the 16th century, the Shiite Safavid (Iranian) Empire had emerged as a rival to the Ottoman Empire . The Kurds found themselves in the middle of the territories claimed by the Sunni Turkic Ottomans and the Shiite Persian Safavids. The two empires fought at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514 AC, where the Ottomans defeated the Safavid Shah. The result of the battle established a boundary between the two empires that split the Kurds between Turkic and Persian empires.
About more than 60,000 Kurdish families and tribes forced to move to Khorasan region / North-east of Iran during Safavian Dynasty 1602 AC, and the reason for that was purely political. They were sent to Khorasan in order to defend the province from attacks by Uzbek and Kazakhs warriors, and also to weaken the Kurds in Kurdistan which their democratic demands were not in line of ruling tyrant. Kurds who are considered to be very determined and jingoistic people by nature did the job and pushed the warriors back to where they belong to and consequently the politic of Shah abbas Safavi had worked to perfection by using Kurds in order to preserve the integrity of the country and his ruling at the time. Therefore, Khorasani Kurds have rescued Iran from foreign occupation and continued to do so (Map2, 23).
Currently about 1.5 million Kurds are living in Khorasan (60% in villages, 35% in Cities and 5% as Nomadic migrants people / koçberî), the most majority of them talks in Kormanji dialect of Kurdish language (23).
In Northern Khorasan (with total population of 850.000); the population of Kurds is about 70% of the Province (about 595.000), Turks (who are the remnant of Uzbeks and Kazaks invaders of Iran, 16 Centaury) about 18% of the Province (about 153.000), Fars about 7% of the Province (about 60.000), and Turkmen is about 5% of the Province (about 45.000) who are in Jargalan rural district / border with Turkmenistan. About 500.000 Kurds live in the west and Northwest of the Razavi Province . About 13 to 15% of Mashhad population (Capital of Razavi Province, with the population of about 3.000.000) is Kurds, which in figure becomes about 400.000 as estimates. The total population of Kurds in Khorasan is about slightly more than 1.5 million (Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
The main Kurdish Cities in Khorasan are: Quchan, Shirvan, Esfarayen, Bojnurd, Kalat, Layeen, Daregaz & doroongar, Faroj, Bajgiran, Chenaran, Ashkhane, Mane-u-Similqan, Joveyn, Raz, Radkan, northern part of Sabzevar, also there is a large number of Kurds who live in Mashhad (7, 8, 12).
They are forgotten deliberately as they are separated from their homeland Greater Kurdistan for more than 400 years. It is needless to say that the lack of state investment has left the area in destitution, undeveloped with no prosperity; about 23% of Kurds in Khorasan are completely illiterate especially nomadic immigrants. Khorasani Kurds are not allowed to be educated in their own mother language, and the regional ruling officialdom is not from khorasani Kurds. There should be no organised Kurdish political, cultural, educational and civic centres or forums to improve and modernise the Kurdish culture, language and social affairs which is their logical basic civil rights. Khorasani Kurds does not have any radio or TV station in their language. Kurdish leaders, intellectuals and writers are prosecuted, insulted, oppressed and jailed (23).
Geographical coordinates of Khorasani’s Kurdish region is between N(36.5–38.5)˚ and E(56-60)˚. The area of Kurdish inhabited region in Khorasan is about 64144 square kilometres. The main River of Kurdish region in Khorasan is Atrak which starts from Hazar-Masjid mountains and ends to Caspian Sea . The main mountains of the Kurdish region in Khorasan are Hazar-Masjid in the East, Binalood in South-east, Shah-jahan in South, Aladagh in west, and Golil in the North. The oil reserves in Khorasani Kurdish region are based in Quchan and Raz.
A Kurdish girl from Khorasan (Kawanlu Tribe), Northeast of Iran, 2005.
Northern Khorasan’ Kurdish Nomadic people (Kowanlu Tribe), North-east of Iran , 2005.
Map2; Khorasani Kurdish tribes and their inhabited regions, 2008.
4 - Lor & Bakhtiyari
The Lur & Bakhtiyari people of Iran are living in the Central and South-western part of Iran . The city of Isfahan was their capital for a long time, but not any more. They had key and leading roles in the Constitutional Revolution. Dr Shapour Bakhtiar, last prime minister of the Shah of Iran, was also from this minority (2).
The minority of Lur & Bakhtiyari live in the West of Iran; mainly in Provinces of Lorestan, Chahar-mahale Bakhtiary, Northern part of Khuzestan, southern part of Hamadan, southern edge of Markazi Province, Some regions of Ilam, Kohgiloye va Boirahmady, and partly in Isfahan. From the geographical point of view their land is in North-eastern part of Zagross Mountains in the west of Iran (Ahwazi Arabs are in South-western part of Zagross Mountains ).
Lur & Bakhtiyari speakers’ inhabitant Provinces and cities include:
Khuzestan Province; Shushtar, Lali, Behbehan, Ramhormoz, Andimeshk, Izeh, Baqmalek, Masjed Soleyman, Dehdiz.
Lurestan Province; Khoramabad, Brujerd, Aligodarz, Azna, Dorud, Kohdasht, Poledokhtar.
Chahar-mahale Bakhtiyari Province; Ardal, Brojen, Farsan, Shar-e Kord, Kohrang, Naghan, Jaeman.
Ilam Province; Ilam, Mehran, Shirvan, Dehloran.
Kohgiloye va Boirahmady Province; Bahmayi, Gachsaran, Yasuj, Dehdasht.
Hamadan Province; Malayer, Nahavand, Toyserkan, Zand & Joykar.
Isfahan Province; Fereydan regions, Daran, Freydon-Shahr, Mogoyi regions, Zalghi regions.
Fars Province; Mamasani regions.
Bushehr Province; Dashtistan, Tangistan, Liravi, Kangan, Dashti.
They have migrated to this region 4000 years ago and established the Ilamite kingdom, which is known as one of the first human civilizations. They also established the Zandiya dynasty in Iran which brought prosperity and peace for a while. The Lur & Bakhtiyari have played significant roles in Iran in the last five hundred years (22).
There are approximately 6.5 million Lur & Bakhtiyari people in Iran , who live in the above mentioned dominated provinces plus neighbouring provinces. About 3 to 4% of Tehran ’s population is Lur & Bakhtiyaris (7, Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1&2, Table 1).
The main roads that connect South of Iran to the North and Centre of Iran go through Lur & Bakhtiyari’s land. Two main rivers of Zayande-Rood and Karoon originate from Zard-Kuh in Bakhtiary.
The main natural resources are: oil and gas. The first oil contract was signed between William Knocks Darcy on behalf of Britain with Bakhtiary leaders. Oil was discovered in Masjed Soleiman (Naftoon). A large portion of Iranian oil is extracted from this part but the people are among the poorest in the country. The main pipelines go through this region too.
Through suppression and dictatorship of the central governments, they have been deprived of their basic human needs and rights. Although they have huge natural resources and great human potentials to grow, but their people live under poverty and in indignity. They want their Language to be taught in schools (2).
Bakhtiyari’s traditional cloths. Greater Loristan (shadowed area), 2008 (2).
5 - Arab
Iranian Arabs mostly live in Provinces such as Khuzestan and Hormozgan. Arabs of Khuzestan Province, who live in South-west side of Zagros Mountains , along with the bank of the Shatt-al-Arab (Arvand Rood) .Over 3.5 million indigenous Arab people, live in the territory known as al-Ahwaz or Khuzestan and neighbouring provinces (Map 3).
For some 500 years, the region was called Arabistan of Iran by Persian rulers. The central government changed the territory’s name to Khuzestan in 1936. Al-Ahwaz or Khuzestan also borders Iraq , Kuwait and the Persian Gulf (15).
Since 1925, indigenous Ahwazis have been brutalized and deliberately kept backward by the successive regimes of Iran . While their land accounts about 80% of Iranian oil production, they benefit no revenue in return, with half of Ahwazi people in absolute poverty and 80% of Ahwazi children suffering from malnutrition (4).
The Ahwazis have been subjected to the eradication of their national identity, culture, and customs; and are faced with forced assimilation, and imposition of Persian language and culture. Ahwazis like other minorities cannot wear their national and ethnic dresses and costumes in official centres. Therefore, a dominant Persian minority influences in every respect of life, political, social, cultural and economical of not only the Ahwazis but all minority of Iran (16, 22).
It is estimated that approximately 5% of Iran 's population which means 3.5 million, is Arabic-speakers, of whom the majority live in Khuzestan Province ( Ahwaz region) and neighboring provinces. Of whom about 250.000 live in Hormozgan Province and Persian Gulf ’s bank and islands (Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
Khuzestan (former Iranian Arabistan)
They speak Arabic as their mother tongue, and Farsi as state official language. The variety of Arabic spoken in the province is Ahwazi Arabic, which is a Mesopotamian dialect shared by Arabs across the border in Iraq (9).
The cities with majority Arabs in Khuzestan include: Abadan , Omidia, Ahwaz, Bandar-Mahshahr, Khoramshahr, Dasht-Azadegan, Shadigan and Susa . About 60% of Khuzestan province is Arabic speakers, the total population of the Province is about 4.5 million. Total population of Arabs in Khuzestan Province estimates about 2.8 million. Ahwazi Arab is majority Shi'a Moslem with a Sunni minority (4, 7).
In Hormozgan Province the Arab population speaks various local dialects of Persian Gulf ’s Arabic. The Arabs of the Province are estimated to be about 10 % of the total population of Hormozgan (total population of Hormozgan is about 1.5 million).
Map 3: Khuzestan; Ahwazi Arab inhabited region. Ahwazi Arab cloths.
6 - Mazendarani / Tabari
Mazendaran is a Caspian province in the north of Iran . It is located in Southern coast of the Caspian Sea .
Mazendarani is the language of Mazendarani / Tabari people. Mazendarani or Tabari is Northwestern Iranian language. They live in the cities such as: Ramsar, Tonekabon, Chaloos, Noshahr, Noor, MahmoodAbad, Amol, Babolsar, Babol, Qaemshahr, Jooybar, Savadkooh, Sari, Neka, and Behshahr (7).
The population of Mazendarani people is estimated about 3.2 million. About 45.9% are as urban dwellers and 54.1% villagers (12, 14, Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1&2, Table 1).
7 - Gilaki
Gilaki people are an Iranian ethnic minority whose homeland is the Gilan Province . They are also found in the neighboring province of Mazendaran . Gilakis is one of the Caspian Sea peoples along with Taleshis, Mazendaranis and Turkmen people.
They speak in Gilaki language, closely related to Mazendarani. The population of Gilaki people estimates about 3.2% of all Iran ’s population which it’s figure is about 2.3 million. Northern part of the province is inhabited by Talyshis (7, 13 & 15, Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
Gilaki woman, tea farmer
Gilaki women, villagers
8 - Baloch
Baluch are Sunnis. They have their own distinct language, culture and history that make them different from other minorities in Iran . Their language, values and traditions are among the oldest and most constructive in the region but it is subjected to assimilation and elimination by Iranian rulers (3).
Population and geography
The Baluchistan of Iran has an area of about 182,000 km². The population of Baluch people in Iran is about 2.2 million. They live mainly in the province of Baluchistan , and also in some regions of Kerman , Hormozgan. The province is the largest in Iran . The main cities of the province are Iran-Shahr, Chabahar, Khash, Zabol (Sistan), Zahedan, Saravan, and Nik-Shahr (7, Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
A brief history
The Baluch people have rescued Iran twice from foreign occupation: once when the Baloch Parthians defeated the successors of Alexander and once when Yackob Leis Saffari defeated the Islamic Caliph and declared the independence of Iran . Baluchistan has given the region three extraordinary historical presents: Rostam, the national hero of Iran in the region, Zoroastrian philosophy and the Persian language.
Baluchistan is located on the northern part of Hormoz Straight at the eastern part of Persian Gulf . 40% of oil of the world is shipped through straight of Hormoz. Both Pakistan and Iran are competing to connect Central Asian countries to sea through Baluchistan .
Iran is considering constructing a gas pipeline through Baluchistan to export gas to Pakistan and India . Pakistan 's main ports are in Baluchistan . Iran is trying to develop the port of Chabahar in Baluchistan to shorten the root of the ships that carry different products to Iran . It also tries to build highways to promote trade in the eastern part of Iran , Afghanistan and Central Asian countries (22).
Baluchistan is the largest province of Iran . The Baluch people have been the victims of widespread discrimination, oppression, human rights violation and ethnic cleansing in Iran . They are crying out for their language to be taught in local schools (3).
Balochi Musician (dhol & Surna Players)
9 - TURKMEN
Turkmen people are living in the north-eastern of Iran , on the south-eastern cost of Caspian Sea, in Golestan province and Northern Khorasan (jargalan rural district in the border of Turkmenistan ).
Some call it Southern Turkmenistan and some say Turkmen – Sahra. Turkmen people live in cities such as: Gunbed–Kavus (central city ) , Bender–Turkmen , Agh–Ghala, Aidervish (kelala ) , Kumish–tepe (gomishan ) ,Marave–tepe, Anbarolum , Dashli–brun , Seemin-shahar , Negeen-shahar , Jergelan (state border line’s rural region in far North of Bojnord).
Turkmen’s religion is Hanafi Sunni Muslims. The total population of Turkmen counted to be about 870,000. Turkmen speak in Turkmeni language which is classified as a branch of Turkic languages (7, 22, Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
Turkmen has a prominent horse culture and heavily invest in horsemanship. Many Turkmen in Iran have remained at least semi-nomadic and traditionally work in agriculture/animal husbandry and the production of carpets.
The geographical location is situated west of Caspian Sea . From the east in border with Republic of Turkmenistan and province of Northern Khorasan , South to northern Alborz Mountains – forests (Figure 1).
The Ancient Land of Turkmen Was Divided by Acts of Colonial Governments that occupied in the last century. Russia and Great Britain dismembered their land under the treaty of Akhal in 1881.This treaty was signed by Russia and Iran, so land of Turkmen was divided into three parts: Russia, Iran and Afghanistan. Iran (Turkmen–Sahra), Afghanistan ( Northern provinces ), and independent Republic of Turkmenistan (was part of former Soviet Union ). The Iranian Turkmen have always resisted with protest and rioted against Iranian despotic governments (16).
In Reza shah era (1924) Turkmen were forbidden to speak their native Turkmen language and only Persian language was allowed.
The National Leaders of Turkmen People: Tumach, Makhtum, Vahedi and Gorjani were brutally killed by Islamic regime, 1980.
Many people were shot and many other people were arrested and were sent to notorious Iranian prisons. Turkmen don’t have any political party, cultural forums, civil societies allowed in Iran .
During the 29 years of domination by Islamic regime, not even one Turkmen was given a major or minor post in state administration. The none-native local authorities in Turkmen region do not recognize the Turkmen people culture and traditions. It is like a cultural genocide. There is an ethnic suppression and decimation upon Turkmen people.
Turkmen people have not got the right to read and write in their native and heritage language. Turkmen children even those who were in kindergartens are not allowed to talk in their mother tongue because of harassment. Discrimination is very wide spread and the cruelty is pervasive. “Sunni” Muslims Turkmen children have been forced to receive Farsi “shia” religious education. Discrimination is present even in getting a passport. If you had given or want to give your child native Turkmen names, you could not receive a passport, because passports with Turkmen names are not given at all, unless you chose a Shia name from a prepared book (22).
Turkmen traditional cloth
10 - Talyshi / Taleshi
Who are Taleshian (Taleshi people)?
Taleshian are as one of the oldest inhabitants of Caspian Sea . The word Caspian is derived from the name of the Caspi (in Farsi کاسی), an ancient people with light skin and blue eyes that lived to the west of the sea in around Talysh Mountains for thousands of years (20, Figure 1).
Taleshian have lived in Talesh land in old Persia and present Iran . Taleshian religion at present is Muslim, mostly Sunni and some Shia.
Taleshian speaks in Talyshi language as one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. It is spoken in the northern regions of the provinces of Gilan and Ardabil in Iran (Southern Taleshistan), and the southern parts of the Republic of Azerbaijan ( Northern Taleshistan ) (Figure 1).
The geographical areas of Talesh land (Taleshistan) at present include where Taleshian people live for instance; in some cities in Gilan province, some cities in Ardabil province, and some cities in Azerbaijan Republic . Southern Taleshistan has been divided in two regions:
Gaskarat region: include cities such as following:
Talesh, Masaal, Taskoh, Shanderman, Rezvanshar, Hashtpar, Asalem, Asttara, and rural areas of the Eastern part of Ardabil and khal-khal.
Foumanat region: include cities such as following:
Fouman, Masoleh, Shaft, Some'e Sara, Anzali, Kapur-Chal.
There are no statistical data on the numbers of Talyshi-speakers in Iran officially, but estimates show their number to be about 690,000 (7, Figure 3, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
The Azerbaijani’s State has also implemented a policy of forceful integration of all minorities, including Talyshi, Tat, Kurds and Lezgins (20, Map 4).
Map 4: Talyshstan of Azerbaijan , a member of UNPO (21). Talyshi Women, Iran .
City of Masouleh , 32 km west of Fuman , Iran .
11 - Qashqai / Ghashghai
Qashqai are a Turkic-speaking tribal minority in Iran . Qashqais mainly live in South Western of Iran. In the North of Fars province (especially around the city of Shiraz ), and southern part of Isfahan Province , and Eastern part of Chahar-mahal Bakhtiyari and some part of Khuzestan Province . They mostly live in cities such as Firozabad , Sepidan, Ardakan and Marv-dasht (15, Figure 1).
The Qashqai were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Qashqai traveled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures (yeilaq) such as; Arjan-dasht in north of Shiraz roughly 480 km or 300 mile south to the winter pastures (qeshlaq) on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz such as: Firozabad, Kazerun, Jehrom, Farashband. The majority of them however, has now settled, or is partially settled.
The Qashqai originate from Aghqoyonlu tribe ( Ardabil region, Safavian dynasty, 1500 AC) which is made up of a number of small tribes and sub-tribes including: Amalaeh, Darreh-Shuri, Kashkuli, Shesh (6), Baluki, Farsimadan, Qaracheh, Rahimi and Safi-Khani.
It is difficult to give exact statistics, but the population of Qashqai estimates roughly close to 600,000 (Figure 3 & 4, Graph 1& 2, Table 1).
The Qashqai were a significant political force in Iran during the early 20th centuries. The Qashqais revolted during 1962-1964 due to the land reforms of the White Revolution. The revolt was put down and within a few years many Qashqais had settled. Most of the tribal leaders were sent to exile. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1979 the living leader Khosrow Khan Qashqai moved back to Iran from Germany . He was soon arrested and executed in public for promoting an uprising against the government (2).
Qashqai Women, wool spinning. Qashqai tribe’s people.
Ghashghis's wedding dance.
12 – Others
Others includes: Zaboli (Sistani), Khorasani Turks, Assyrian, Afghani (Dari, Hazaragi), Sangisari, Tati, Armenian and Jews (8, 16).
Zaboli (Sistani): Zaboli-speaking people live in Sistan, their population estimates about 400,000. Sistan is a border region, in South-eastern Iran and South-western Afghanistan . One portion is part of the Iranian province of Sistan and Baluchistan , and the other portion is part of the Nimruz Province of Afghanistan.
Sistan is also called as Zabulistan, after Zabul, an Afghan province. Zabulistan was the homeland of the mythological hero-king Rostam (son of Zal and Roodabeh).
Khorasani Turkish-speakers: this dialect of Turkic language originates from Turks of Uzbekistan and or Kazakhstan , and it is a remnant of their invasion to Khorasan , Iran in 16 Century. It is midway linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen, but not a dialect of either. Their population estimates about 300,000; they live in patchy forms in Khorasan Province (23).
Assyrian is a language of an ethnic (Christian, Nestorian) which its population is about 80,000 that mostly live in Urmiya region and Tehran .
Dari and Hazragi-speaking population has increased significantly due to the influx of refugees from Afghanistan throughout Iran , especially urban centres (9).
Sangisari-speakers mostly live in Semnan province and mainly in the Sangsar (Mahdi Shahr) town and in a several surrounding villages.
Tati language is now only spoken by different rural communities such as villages around Khalkhal and Ardabil, and also some in Zanjan and Qazvin provinces. Tati is closely related to Talyshi language.
Baha'is mostly lives in Fars Province and Tehran . Zoroastrians mostly live in Yazd , Kerman and Tehran . Jews and Christians mostly live in Kurdish regions and Tehran (12).
Basically there has never been any census on the number of Iran ’s ethnic groups. In the national census of 1986 there was a box asking people about the language spoken at home. But later, the officials changed their mind and asked people not to check that box.
But now it seems it is necessary to have a census to find out the number of Azeri Turks, Kurds, Baluchis, Persian, Arab, Talyshis, Gilakis, Mazendaranis, Lur & Bakhtiyari, and Turkmen people in order to determine accurately, Iran’s ethnic diversity.
United Nations has 191 members. About 179 of them are multinational countries. At the top of the multinational countries is India with 1300 nationalities.Only 12 countries have nearly one nation. Iran is among top ten multinational countries of the world with about eleven distinct major minorities / nationalities and some a few others.
In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which proclaimed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Sadly, for all minorities and indigenous peoples in Iran , this inspirational text, with its emphasis on equality and non-discrimination, remains a dream, not a reality (9).
Iran is the remnant of an empire. Over 3000 sq km of Iran were seceded from it in18th and 19th centuries in wars with Russia and Britain after Shiism alienated millions of Sunnis. Iran is surrounded by Sunni countries that all of them except were part of it before. Afghanistan and a large part of Pakistan were separated from Iran when Sunni Afghans and Baloch refused to convert to Shiism.
The Sunni and Christian in republics of central Asia were adequately alienated by the Shia regime of Iran before Iran-Russian wars started. They preferred to accept a Russia that didn’t force them to abandon their religion. Afghanistan and Tajikistan are Farsi speaking nations that were separated from Iran . The Arabs are separated from the Arabs of Gulf. The Baloch are separated from Baluchistan , Pakistan . The Kurds are separated from Kurds of Turkey, Iraq and Syria . The Azeri Turks are separated from Azerbaijan . Turkmen have also separated from Turkmenistan (3).
Iran was called the United States of Iran (Mamalek-e Mahrooseh Iran with a decentralised system / Anjoman-haye Eyalati-va-Velayati). The name of Anjoman-haye Eyalati-va-Velayati of that day is reshaped and updated on today as Congress of Nationalities for a Federal Iran (CNFI) at present time. The struggle of minorities in Iran for decentralizing the ruling system has taken a long time with very high prices so far, which is so sad, and it is time that some things to be done (22).
Iran has 30 provinces, which 20 of them are dominated by minorities such as; Arabs, Baluchs, Kurds, Lur & Bakhtiyari, Azeri Turks, Turkmen, Mazendarani, Gilakis and Taleshis. The others are mixed. Fore example: About 65% of the population of Tehran are from Iranian minorities (none-Persian). There are 11 provinces which have Sunni minority, and some of them are Sunni dominated. These Provinces include: Kurdistan, Baluchistan, West Azerbaijan, Northern Khorasan, Southern Khorasan, Golestan, Bushehr, Khuzistan, Kermanshah , Gilan (Talyshis areas) and Ilam (3, 18, 19, figure 1).
Figure 3: Iranian Provinces.
There are two cities in Iran that has got highly mixed minorities such as; Tehran and Karaj . Two holly cities of Mashhad and Qom are also a bit ethno-mixed. From the total population of Tehran and Karaj , the estimate of minorities population is; Persian (36%), Azeri (33%), Gilaki & Mazendarani (15%), Kurds (about 7%), Lur & Bakhtiyari (about 4%), Arab (about 1%), and all other minorities (plus foreigners) about 5%.
It is better to mention that the migration of minorities from western Provinces (such as Arabs, Kurds, Lur & Bakhtiyaris) to Tehran and Karaj was high especially during the war between Iraq and Iran and most of them were settled there.
نتايج سرشماري عمومي نفوس و مسكن، ایران 1385.
Figure 4: (Residence & Population census, Iran 2006).
اسامی استانهای ایران
Provinces of Iran
Sistan va Baluchistan
Chaharmahal va Bakhtiyari
Kohgiloye va Boyrahmadi
جمع کل Sum /
[However, the figures might be imprecise because state rulers have never allowed an honest census for political gains. Population growth rate in Iran is high and estimates about 0.663%, Iran has got a young population. Birth rate estimates: 16.57 births/1,000 population, Death rate estimates: 5.65 deaths/1,000 population (7, 18)].
There are 11 main ethno-linguistic minorities in Iran , which is as following:
1- Persian [(Fars or Pars), 34.5%], 2- Azeri Turks (25.7%), 3- Kurds (12%), 4- Lur & Bakhtiyari (8%), 5- Arab (4.8%), 6- Mazendarani (4.4%),7- Gilaks (3.2%), 8- Baloch (3%), 9- Turkmen (1.2%), 10- Talyshi (1%), 11- Ghashghayi [(Qashqayi), (0.8%)], 12- Others (1.5%), [Table 1].
% in Iran
Population in Iran
Persian / Fars
Farsi (Persian / Parsi)
Lur & Bakhtiari
Luri & Bakhtiari
Kurdish (Kormanji) in Khorasan
Table 1: Ethnic minorities’ languages and population in Iran , Dr. Afrasiab Shekofteh, 2008.
Graph 1: illustration of Iranian ethnic minorities’ percentages, 2008.
Graph 2: The percentages (%) of Iranian minorities’ population as plotted, 2008.
While, all of these ethnic minority have their own languages, cultures, and often literature, but their languages, traditions and cultures are banned without any prosperity, which has created an unpleasant situation for all minorities. Their differences usually emerge as political ambitions and demands (12).
The mosaic of peoples living in Iran reflects the geographical situation of the country throughout history. One of the major internal policy challenges during the centuries up until now for most or all Iranian governments has been to find the appropriate and balanced approach to the difficulties and opportunities caused by this diversity, particularly as this internal diversity has often been readily utilized by foreign powers.
International human rights organization should lobby the government of Iran and work to secure rights for ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous people in Iran . Minorities should be provided education and training in their own languages to enable them to claim their rightful place in their own society.
International human rights organizations and UN should take steps on behalf of minorities in the world for advancing the protection of them under international law.
This research represents a data on minority of Iran . I have sought to be as accurate as possible, and shared with some minorities’ expertise and members wherever possible. There might be some disputes about population size and issues of basic counting error. In future iterations of this study I hope to include many more details.
If Iran ’s rulers declares genuine amnesty and allows genuine participation of all minorities and their political organisations and ordinary citizens in democratic political process in Iran , then there would be no violence of any sorts including state terrorism. This is part of the peaceful nature and tolerant culture of all Iranian nationalities. This sort of participation can only be genuine and real if the Iranian constitution is amended to recognise all the diverse ethnic and religious elements of Iran .
There is no State’s TV stations and Radio in minority’s languages, no education in regional languages, neither in schools nor in universities and institutions of higher education.
Tehran’s ultra centralized development strategy has resulted in a wide socioeconomic gap between the centre and the peripheries, where there is also an uneven distribution of power, socioeconomic resources, and sociocultural status. The violence in remote regions such as Kurdistan, Khuzistan , Azerbaijan and Baluchistan clearly has ethnic components, but the far greater causes of the poverty and unemployment that vexes members of ethnic minorities are government organised corruption, inefficiency, and a general sense of lawlessness, which all Iranians, including Persians, must confront.
The policies like restriction on opposition’s political parties (minorities are not allowed to have any Political parties and cultural forums), stricture on minorities’ civil society, suppression of none-state media, subordination of the judicial system, and abolition of the direct election of regional minorities are absolutely routine actions.
The vast revenues that government accrues due to high global energy prices, not only gives more power to suppress minorities, but also the appeasement policy of Russia, China and also some EU (so called democratic) leaders and turning blind eyes on despotic Islamic rulers, is an indirect confirmation and encouragement to this inhumanity and discrimination.
Minorities’ oppression is evident in many parts of Iran . They have boiled over into bitter violence. The situation continues to deteriorate and they fear for their very survival, there were eye gouging in Khorasan on 2007, and limbs amputation in Baluchistan on 2008, and there are many executions by hanging them on the crane, and many cases of raping and severe torturing and so on. The crisis is deepening, as government-sponsored ideological armed forces (Pasdaran / IRGC) and Para-militia (Basijis) continue to carry out massive human rights abuses against minorities.
World leaders and policy makers must insist that the rights of minorities and indigenous people to be respected. The participation of minorities in the state affairs and electoral representation is essential if conflict is to be prevented and lasting peace to be built. This research as state of Iran ’s minorities could be an invaluable reference for policy-makers, academics, journalists and everyone who is interested in the conditions facing minorities and indigenous peoples in Iran .
The inclusion of minorities leads to the stronger and more cohesive societies. It is crystal clear that exclusion results in instability, conflict, and in the most extreme cases leads to genocide such as; gassing Kurds in Sardasht, mass grave in khavaran, and many other mass graves across Iran, oppression is on right now, which is so sad.
US, EU and UN should follow the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (UN resolution 47/135 of 18 December 1992) and also the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous peoples and by that to pressurize the Islamic republic rulers to respect the obligations (10, 11).
I as a member of minorities want to ask international community to call on Iranian Government to respond with policies that to address effectively the widespread, entrenched and institutionalized discrimination, and the organized assimilation of languages & cultures in the society of Iranian minorities. United Nations independent experts should inspect the minorities’ situation, and also supervise the unfair elections that minorities have no real representatives. Iranian minorities have no cultural and civil forums, no political party is allowed to be built on their own, literary and academic curricula in their languages are violently banned.
IRGC (ideological armed forces which is separated from regular state armed forces) and Mullah’s performances as decision makers have been a dilemma so far, and it has been failed. Their term as state rulers demonstrates key characteristics of social injustice, unemployment, disorder, systemic corruption, nepotism, gender discrimination, inflation, fundamentalist monopoly, unaccountability and state intervention businesses. With no growth in infrastructure, the state remains undeveloped, especially in minorities regions. Opaqueness rather than transparency is dominating Iranian rulers’ policies. The rule of law remains too weak, with no desire to reform.
Middle East has been the centre of civilization and incivility throughout the history. After invasion of Islam to Iran , the Shiite envy and reactionary fundamentalist rivalry has played a major role in changing civilized Iran to uncivil one, whenever they got power.
On today as the globalisation era, apparently the rivals feel that it is just the time to change the course again but this time globally. In this critical time it is important to remind all civilised parties about their uncivil behaviours and blueprint, so they come to their senses, and with a suitable rapprochement they should be off the power once for ever in favour of popular secularism and democracy based on human rights.
Dr. Afrasiab Shekofteh - London, UK, March 2008
1- Abdullah Mohtadi, Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan.
2- Faramarz Bakhtiyar, Bakhtiyari & Loristan Union Party.
3- Dr. Reza Hosseinborr, Baluchistan United Front.
4- Yosef Azizi Bani-Turoof (Ahwazi Arab), speech at Industrial University of Isfahan, 1999.
6 - www.minorityrights.org/download.php?id=119.
7 - http://www.sci.org.ir/portal/faces/public/census85/census85.natayej.
11- G J McDougall, UN independent expert on minority issues.
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on November 30 2013 13:20:30
|and my Beginning has good auspices. Let us then keep the Festival with | <a href="http://www.prophecyfilm.com/bible-verses-about-strength/">seem greater, by various pretexts</a> | Oration 1 On Easter and His Reluctance. | <a href="http://www.doomsdaytube.com/prayer-for-the-sick/">I. It is the Day of the Resurrection</a> | splendour, Isaiah 66:5 and let us embrace one another. Let us say Brethren, even to those who hate us; much | <a href="http://www.catholic-saints.net/jesus-quotes/">more to those who have</a> |done or suffered anything out of love for us. Let us forgive all offenses for the | <a href="http://www.catholic-saints.net/god-photos/">Resurrection's sake:</a> | let us give one another pardon, I for the noble tyranny which I have suffered (for I can now | <a href="http://www.2012endoftheworld.name/what-will-happen-in-2012/">call it noble); and</a> | you who exercised it, if you had cause to blame my tardiness; for perhaps this tardiness may be | <a href="http://www.2012endoftheworld.name/bible-verses-about-hope/">more precious in</a> | God's sight than the haste of others. For it is a good thing even to hold back from God for a | <a href="http://www.lordjesuschrist.eu/jesus-take-the-wheel-lyrics/">little while, as did</a> | the great Moses of old, Exodus 4:10 and Jeremiah Jeremiah 1:6 later on; and then to run | <a href="http://www.inheaven.name/god-bless-the-broken-road-lyrics/">readily to Him</a> | when He calls, as did Aaron Exodus 4:27 and Isaiah, Isaiah 1:6 so only both be done in a dutiful | <a href="http://www.inheaven.name/shout-to-the-lord-lyrics.php">spirit;— the former</a> | because of his own want of strength; the latter because of the Might of Him That calls. | <a href="http://www.stfrancis.name/st-jude-prayer/">II. A Mystery anointed me</a> | I withdrew a little while at a Mystery, as much as was needful to examine myself; | <a href="http://www.stfrancis.name/jesus-paid-it-all-lyrics/">now I come in with</a> | a Mystery, bringing with me the Day as a good defender of my cowardice and weakness; that | <a href="http://www.stpatrick.name/advent-candles/">He Who today</a> | rose again from the dead may renew me also by His Spirit; and, clothing me with the new Man, | <a href="http://www.ourgod.info/god-quotes/">may give me to</a> | His New Creation, to those who are begotten after God, as a good modeller and teacher for | <a href="http://www.ourgod.info/god-wallpaper/">Christ, willingly</a> |both dying with Him and rising again with Him. | <a href="http://www.ourgod.info/how-great-is-our-god.php">Yesterday the Lamb </a> | was slain and the door-posts were anointed, and Egypt bewailed her Firstborn, and | <a href="http://www.inhell.net/pt/crucifixo/">the Destroyer passed</a> | us over, and the Seal was dreadful and reverend, and we were walled in with the Precious | <a href="http://www.inhell.net/blood-sacrifice-for-fame/">Blood. Today</a> | we have clean escaped from Egypt and from Pharaoh; and there is none to hinder us from | <a href="http://www.inhell.net/pt/sacrificio/">keeping a Feast</a> | to the Lord our God— the Feast of our Departure; or from celebrating that Feast, not in the old | <a href="http://www.st-mary.info/pl/przypowiesc-o-milosiernym-samarytaninie/">leaven of malice</a> | and wickedness, but in the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth, 1 Corinthians 5:8 carrying | | | <a href="http://www.our-lady.net/es/virtudes-cardinales/">with us nothing</a> | of ungodly and Egyptian leaven. IV. Yesterday I was crucified with Him; today I am | <a href="http://www.our-lady.net/es/parabola-de-los-talentos/">glorified with Him</a> | yesterday I died with Him; today I am quickened with Him; yesterday I was buried with | <a href="http://www.the-prayer.info/prayers-for-children/">Him; today I rise</a> | with Him. But let us offer to Him Who suffered and rose again for us— you will think perhaps | <a href="http://www.the-prayer.info/prayers-for-strength/">that I am going to</a> | say gold, or silver, or woven work or transparent and costly stones, the mere passing material | <a href="http://www.the-prayer.info/prayers-of-the-faithful/">of earth, that</a> | remains here below, and is for the most part always possessed by bad men, slaves of the world and of | <a href="http://www.ghost-videos.info/pt/pacto-com-o-diabo/">the Prince of</a> | the world. Let us offer ourselves, the possession most precious to God, and most fitting; let us | <a href="http://www.ghost-videos.info/pt/serafim/">give back to</a> | the Image what is made after the Image. Let us recognize our Dignity; let us honour our Archetype; | <a href="http://www.dedios.eu/imagenes-de-dios/">let us know the</a> | power of the Mystery, and for what Christ died. V. Let us become like Christ, since Christ became | <a href="http://www.dedios.eu/angeles-de-dios/">like us. Let us</a> | become God's for His sake, since He for ours became Man. He assumed the worse that He might give | <a href="http://www.dedios.eu/oraciones-a-dios.php">us the better;</a> |He became poor that we through His poverty might be rich; 2 Corinthians 8:9 He took upon | <a href="http://www.santos-catolicos.com/virgen-maria/apariciones-de-la-virgen-maria.php">Him the form of a</a> | servant that we might receive back our liberty; He came down that we might be exalted; He was | <a href="http://www.santos-catolicos.com/virgen-de-guadalupe/imagenes-de-la-virgen-de-guadalupe.php">tempted that we</a> | might conquer; He was dishonoured that He might glorify us; He died that He might save us; He | <a href="http://www.santos-catolicos.com/virgen-maria/imagenes-de-la-virgen-maria.php">ascended that He</a> | might draw to Himself us, who were lying low in the Fall of sin. Let us give all, offer all, to | <a href="http://www.jesuscristo.name/frases-de-jesus/">Him Who gave</a> | Himself a Ransom and a Reconciliation for us. But one can give nothing like oneself, | <a href="http://www.oracionescatolicas.org/oracion-a-san-judas-tadeo.php">understanding the Mystery, </a> | and becoming for His sake all that He became for ours. VI. As you see, He offers you a Shepherd | <a href="http://www.oracionescatolicas.org/oracion-al-espiritu-santo/">for this is what your</a> | Good Shepherd, who lays down his life for his sheep, is hoping and praying for, and he asks from | <a href="http://www.oracionescatolicas.org/oraciones-poderosas.php">you his subjects;</a> | and he gives you himself double instead of single, and makes the staff of his old age a | <a href="http://www.elinfierno.org/pt/blasfemia/">staff for your spirit</a> | And he adds to the inanimate temple a living one; to that exceedingly beautiful and heavenly | <a href="http://www.la-virgen.org/medalla-milagrosa/">shrine, this poor</a> | and small one, yet to him of great value, and built too with much sweat and many labours. Would | <a href="http://www.nuestrasenora.org/virtudes-humanas/">that I could say</a> | it is worthy of his labours. And he places at your disposal all that belongs to him (O great | <a href="http://www.santo-rosario.com/rosarios/">generosity!— or it would be</a> | truer to say, O fatherly love!) his hoar hairs, his youth, the temple, the high | <a href="http://www.senordelosmilagros.net/oraciones-para-bautizo/">priest, the testator, the</a> | heir, the discourses which you were longing for; and of these not such as are vain and | <a href="http://www.senordelosmilagros.net/milagros-de-jesus/">poured out into the air,</a> | and which reach no further than the outward ear; but those which the Spirit writes and | <a href="http://www.tercer-cielo.net/nacimiento-de-jesus/">engraves on tables</a> | of stone, or of flesh, not merely superficially graven, nor easily to be rubbed off, but | <a href="http://www.tercer-cielo.net/parabola-del-sembrador/">marked very deep, not</a> | with ink, but with grace. VII. These are the gifts given you by this | <a href="http://www.igreja-catolica.com/parabola-do-semeador/">august Abraham,</a> |this honourable and reverend Head, this Patriarch, this Restingplace of all good, this Standard of | <a href="http://www.nossa-senhora.org/nossa-senhora-das-gracas/">virtue, this Perfection</a> | of the Priesthood, who today is bringing to the Lord his willing Sacrifice, his only Son | <a href="http://www.nossa-senhora.org/oracao-a-nossa-senhora-aparecida/">him of the promise</a> | Do you on your side offer to God and to us obedience to your Pastors, dwelling in a place | <a href="http://www.nossa-senhora.org/escapulario/">of herbage, and being</a> | fed by water of refreshment; knowing your Shepherd well, and being known by him; | <a href="http://www.oracao.info/oracao-do-dia.php">John 10:14 and following</a> | when he calls you as a Shepherd frankly through the door; but not following a | <a href="http://www.oracao.info/oracao-poderosa.php">stranger climbing up</a> | into the fold like a robber and a traitor; nor listening to a strange voice when such would | <a href="http://www.oracao.info/oracao-da-serenidade.php">take you away by</a> | stealth and scatter you from the truth on mountains, Ezekiel 34:6 and in deserts, and pitfalls, | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/frases-de-deus/">and places which the</a> | Lord does not visit; and would lead you away from the sound Faith in the Father, the Son, | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/deus-do-impossivel.php">and the Holy Ghost,</a> | the One Power and Godhead, Whose Voice my sheep always heard (and may they | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/com-deus-nao-se-brinca.php">always hear it)</a> | but with deceitful and corrupt words would tear them from their true Shepherd. From which | <a href="http://www.saofrancisco.org/vocacao/">may we all be kept,</a> | Shepherd and flock, as from a poisoned and deadly pasture; guiding and being guided | <a href="http://www.saofrancisco.org/filho-prodigo/">far away from it,</a> | that we may all be one in Christ Jesus our Lord, now and unto the heavenly rest. To Whom be | <a href="http://www.saofrancisco.org/arrependimento/">the glory and the might</a> |for ever and ever. Amen. Oration 2 - It is generally agreed that this oration was not intended | <a href="http://www.jezuschrystus.net/przypowiesc/">for oral delivery. Its object</a> | was to explain and defend S. Gregory's recent conduct, which had been severely | <a href="http://www.jezuschrystus.net/przypowiesc-o-synu-marnotrawnym/">criticised by his friends</a> | at Nazianzus. He had been recalled by his father probably during the year A.D.. 361 | <a href="http://www.jezuschrystus.net/sw-rita/">from Pontus, where</a> | he had spent several years in monastic seclusion with his friend S. Basil. His father, | <a href="http://www.objawienia.com/mojzesz/">not content with his</a> | son's presence at home as a support for his declining years, and feeling assured of his fitness | <a href="http://www.objawienia.com/tajemnice-fatimskie/">for the sacred office, had</a> | proceeded, with the loudly expressed approval of the congregation, in spite of | <a href="http://www.objawienia.com/celibat/">Gregory's reluctance,</a> | to ordain him to the priesthood on Christmas Day A.D. 361. S. Gregory, even after the lapse | <a href="http://www.mondieu.info/profession-de-foi/">of many years, speaks</a> | of his ordination as an act of tyranny, and at the time, stung almost to madness, as an | | | <a href="http://www.mondieu.info/pt/bom-samaritano/">ox by a gadfly, rushed</a> | away again to Pontus, to bury in its congenial solitude, consoled by an intimate friend's | <a href="http://www.mondieu.info/pt/uncao/">deep sympathy, his wounded feelings.</a> | Before long the sense of duty reasserted itself, and he returned to his | <a href="http://www.arch-angels.info/pl/aniol-panski/">post at his father's</a> | side before Easter A.D. 362. On Easter day he delivered his first Oration before a | <a href="http://www.baptism-gifts.org/it/frasi-battesimo/">congregation whose scantiness</a> | marked the displeasure with which the people of Nazianzus had viewed his | <a href="http://www.baptism-gifts.org/es/souvenirs-para-bautismo/">conduct. Accordingly he</a> | set himself to supply them in this Oration with a full explanation of the motives which | <a href="http://www.christmasgiftsforyou.net/christmas-bible-verses/">had led to his retirement.</a> | At the same time, as the secondary title of the Oration shows, he has supplied an | <a href="http://www.creationmovie.net/pt/contra-reforma/">exposition of the</a> | obligations and dignity of the Priestly Office which has been drawn upon by all later writers on | <a href="http://www.eastersunday.eu/pt/simbolos-da-pascoa/">the subject. S. Chrysostom</a> | in his well-known treatise, S. Gregory the Great in his Pastoral Care, and Bossuet in | <a href="http://www.sevendeadlysins.eu/pt/pilatos/">his panegyric on S. Paul</a> | have done little more than summarise the material or develop the considerations | <a href="http://www.the-pope.org/sacrifice-quotes/">contained in this eloquent</a> | and elaborate dissertation. In Defence of His Flight to Pontus, and His Return, | <a href="http://www.true-faith.net/pt/mensagens-de-fe/">After His Ordination</a> | to the Priesthood, with an Exposition of the Character of the Priestly Office. 1. | <a href="http://www.true-faith.net/es/frases-de-fe/">I have been defeated,</a> | and own my defeat. I subjected myself to the Lord, and prayed unto Him. Let the most | <a href="http://www.eucaristia.eu/detalles-comunion/">blessed David</a> | supply my exordium, or rather let Him Who spoke in David, and even now yet speaks through | <a href="http://www.eucaristia.eu/souvenirs-de-comunion/">him. For indeed</a> | the very best order of beginning every speech and action, is to begin from God, and to end in | <a href="http://www.feliz-navidad.info/novena-de-navidad/">God. As to the cause</a> | , either of my original revolt and cowardice, in which I got me away far off, and remained | <a href="http://www.feliz-navidad.info/novena-de-aguinaldos/">away from you for</a> | a time, which perhaps seemed long to those who missed me; or of the present gentleness and | <a href="http://www.feliz-navidad.info/pensamientos-de-navidad/">change of mind,</a> | in which I have given myself up again to you, men may think and speak in different ways, | <a href="http://www.imagenes-de-angeles.com/pt/anjos-da-guarda/">according to the hatred</a> | or love they bear me, on the one side refusing to acquit me of the charges alleged, on the | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/pt/septuaginta/">other giving me a</a> | hearty welcome. For nothing is so pleasant to men as talking of other people's business, | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/pt/pentateuco/">especially under the</a> | influence of affection or hatred, which often almost entirely blinds us to the truth. I will, | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/catequesis-para-ninos/">however, myself, </a> | unabashed, set forth the truth, and arbitrate with justice between the two parties, which | <a href="http://www.la-papa.net/las-7-palabras-de-jesus-en-la-cruz/">accuse or gallantly defend</a> | us, by, on the one side, accusing myself, on the other, undertaking my own defence. | <a href="http://www.la-papa.net/matrimonio/">2. Accordingly, that</a> |my speech may proceed in due order, I apply myself to the question which arose first, | <a href="http://www.pecadoscapitales.info/pt/dizimo/">that of cowardice.</a> | For I cannot endure that any of those who watch with interest the success, or the contrary, of | <a href="http://www.pecadoscapitales.info/pt/escrupulos/">my efforts, should be</a> | put to confusion on my account, since it has pleased God that our affairs should be of | <a href="http://www.feliz-natal.net/mensagens-de-natal-e-ano-novo/">some consequence to</a> | Christians, so I will by my defence relieve, if there be any such, those who have already | <a href="http://www.feliz-natal.net/frases-de-natal/">suffered; for it is</a> | well, as far as possible, and as reason allows, to shrink from causing, through our sin or | <a href="http://www.regali-di-natale.org/poesie-di-natale/">suspicion, any offense</a> | or stumbling-block to the community: inasmuch as we know how inevitably even | <a href="http://www.regali-di-natale.org/biglietti-di-natale/">those who offend one</a> | of the little ones Matthew 18:6 will incur the severest punishment at the hands of Him | <a href="http://www.prophecyfilm.com/extra-ecclesiam-nulla-salus/">who cannot lie.</a> | 3. For my present position is due, my good people, not to inexperience and ignorance, nay indeed, that | <a href="http://www.demonic.name/pl/lucyfer/">I may boast myself</a> | a little, 2 Corinthians 11:16 neither is it due to contempt for the divine laws and ordinances. | <a href="http://www.rosary.name/gold-rosary/">Now, just as in the</a> | body there is one member which rules and, so to say, presides, while another is ruled over | <a href="http://www.rosary.name/shop/9-silver-rosary">and subject; so too</a> | in the churches, God has ordained, according either to a law of equality, which admits of an | <a href="http://www.rosary.name/black-rosary/">order of merit, or</a> | to one of providence, by which He has knit all together, that those for whom such treatment is | <a href="http://www.our-lady.net/forgiveness-bible-verses/">beneficial, should</a> |be subject to pastoral care and rule, and be guided by word and deed in the path of duty; | <a href="http://www.jesuscristo.name/jesus-misericordioso/">while others should</a> | be pastors and teachers, Ephesians 4:11 for the perfecting of the church, those, I mean, who | <a href="http://www.demonios.info/frases-de-desamor/">surpass the majority</a> | in virtue and nearness to God, performing the functions of the soul in the body, and of | <a href="http://www.demonios.info/nombres-de-demonios/">the intellect in the soul</a> | in order that both may be so united and compacted together, that, although one is | <a href="http://www.ourgod.info/images-of-god/">lacking and another</a> | is pre-eminent, they may, like the members of our bodies, be so combined and knit | <a href="http://www.ourgod.info/picture-of-god/">together by the harmony</a> | of the Spirit, as to form one perfect body, really worthy of Christ Himself, our Head. Ephesians 4:15 | <a href="http://www.inhell.net/motivational-bible-verses/">4. I am aware then that</a> | anarchy and disorder cannot be more advantageous than order and rule, either to other | <a href="http://www.dedios.eu/gracias-a-dios.php">creatures or to men</a> | ; nay, this is true of men in the highest possible degree, because the interests at stake in | <a href="http://www.oracionescatolicas.org/oraciones-de-amor/">their case are greater;</a> | since it is a great thing for them, even if they fail of their highest purpose— to be free | <a href="http://www.oracionescatolicas.org/padre-nuestro-en-ingles/">from sin— to attain</a> | at least to that which is second best, restoration from sin. Since this seems right and just, it | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/deus-cuida-de-mim.php">is, I take it, equally</a> | wrong and disorderly that all should wish to rule, and that no one should accept it. For if all | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/deus-de-promessas.php">men were to shirk</a> | this office, whether it must be called a ministry or a leadership, the fair fullness Ephesians 1:23 | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/poderoso-deus.php">of the Church would</a> | be halting in the highest degree, and in fact cease to be fair. And further, where, and by | <a href="http://www.jezuschrystus.net/glowne-prawdy-wiary/">whom would God</a> | be worshipped among us in those mystic and elevating rites which are our greatest and | <a href="http://www.objawienia.com/swieci/sw-antoni.php">most precious privilege,</a> | if there were neither king, nor governor, nor priesthood, nor sacrifice, Hosea 3:4 nor all | <a href="http://www.mondieu.info/je-crois-en-dieu.php">those highest offices</a> | to the loss of which, for their great sins, men were of old condemned in consequence of their disobedience? | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/pt/frases-da-biblia/">5. Nor indeed</a> | is it strange or inconsistent for the majority of those who are devoted to the study of divine | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/versiculos-de-la-biblia/">things, to ascend</a> | to rule from being ruled, nor does it overstep the limits laid down by philosophy, or involve | <a href="http://www.prophecyfilm.com/signs-of-the-apocalypse.php">disgrace; any more</a> | than for an excellent sailor to become a lookout-man, and for a lookout-man, who has | <a href="http://www.inhell.net/spare-the-rod-spoil-the-child/">successfully kept watch</a> | over the winds, to be entrusted with the helm; or, if you will, for a brave soldier to be | | | <a href="http://www.rosary.name/rosaries-for-men/">made a captain,</a> | and a good captain to become a general, and have committed to him the conduct of the whole | <a href="http://rosary.name/shop/11-wood-rosaries">campaign. Nor</a> | again, as perhaps some of those absurd and tiresome people may suppose, who judge of others' | <a href="http://rosary.name/shop/14-plastic-rosaries">feelings by their own</a> | was I ashamed of the rank of this grade from my desire for a higher. I was not so ignorant | <a href="http://www.dedios.eu/dios-existe/">either of its divine</a> | greatness or human low estate, as to think it no great thing for a created nature, to approach | <a href="http://www.nossa-senhora.org/ascetismo/">in however slight</a> | degree to God, Who alone is most glorious and illustrious, and surpasses in purity every | <a href="http://www.saofrancisco.org/oracao-de-sao-francisco.php">nature, material and immaterial</a> | alike. 6. What then were my feelings, and what was the reason of my disobedience? For to most men I | <a href="http://www.jezuschrystus.net/reformacja/">did not at the time seem</a> | consistent with myself, or to be such as they had known me, but to have undergone some | <a href="http://www.jezuschrystus.net/przypowiesc-o-siewcy/">deterioration, and to exhibit</a> | greater resistance and self-will than was right. And the causes of this you have long | <a href="http://www.doomsdaytube.com/once-saved-always-saved/">been desirous to hear.</a> | First, and most important, I was astounded at the unexpectedness of what had occurred, | <a href="http://www.doomsdaytube.com/bible-study-topics/">as people are terrified</a> | by sudden noises; and, losing the control of my reasoning faculties, my self-respect, which | | | <a href="http://www.2012endoftheworld.name/bible-verses-about-faith/">had hitherto controlled</a> | me, gave way. In the next place, there came over me an eager longing for the blessings of | <a href="http://www.lordjesuschrist.eu/spiritual-quotes/">calm and retirement,</a> | of which I had from the first been enamoured to a higher degree, I imagine, than any other | <a href="http://www.lordjesuschrist.eu/religious-quotes/">student of letters,</a> | and which amidst the greatest and most threatening dangers I had promised to God, and of | <a href="http://www.lordjesuschrist.eu/jesus-christ-superstar.php">which I had also had</a> | so much experience, that I was then upon its threshold, my longing having in consequence | <a href="http://www.inheaven.name/jesus-wallpaper/">been greatly kindled,</a> | so that I could not submit to be thrust into the midst of a life of turmoil by an arbitrary | <a href="http://www.inheaven.name/lord-i-lift-your-name-on-high-lyrics/">act of oppression,</a> | and to be torn away by force from the holy sanctuary of such a life as this. | <a href="http://www.stfrancis.name/prayer-quotes/">7. For nothing</a> | seemed to me so desirable as to close the doors of my senses, and, escaping from the flesh and the | <a href="http://www.stfrancis.name/here-i-am-lord-lyrics/">world, collected within</a> | myself, having no further connection than was absolutely necessary with human | <a href="http://www.stpatrick.name/when-was-jesus-born/">affairs, and speaking</a> | to myself and to God, 1 Corinthians 14:28 to live superior to visible things, ever | <a href="http://www.st-mary.info/pl/dary-ducha-swietego/">preserving in myself</a> | the divine impressions pure and unmixed with the erring tokens of this lower world, and | <a href="http://www.st-mary.info/pl/dusza/">both being,</a> | and constantly growing more and more to be, a real unspotted mirror of God and divine things, as | <a href="http://www.our-lady.net/es/confesion/">light is added to light</a> | , and what was still dark grew clearer, enjoying already by hope the blessings of the world to | | | <a href="http://www.ghost-videos.info/bible-verses-about-death/">come, roaming about</a> | with the angels, even now being above the earth by having forsaken it, and stationed on | <a href="http://www.ghost-videos.info/pt/anticristo/">high by the Spirit.</a> | If any of you has been possessed by this longing, he knows what I mean and will sympathise | <a href="http://www.santos-catolicos.com/arrepentimiento/">with my feelings at</a> | that time. For, perhaps, I ought not to expect to persuade most people by what I say, since they | <a href="http://www.oracionescatolicas.org/padre-nuestro/">are unhappily disposed</a> | to laugh at such things, either from their own thoughtlessness, or from the influence of | <a href="http://www.oracionescatolicas.org/san-marcos.php">men unworthy of the</a> | promise, who have bestowed upon that which is good an evil name, calling philosophy | <a href="http://www.demonios.info/pt/demonios/">nonsense, aided by envy</a> | and the evil tendencies of the mob, who are ever inclined to grow worse: so that they | <a href="http://www.demonios.info/demonologia/">are constantly occupied</a> | with one of two sins, either the commission of evil, or the discrediting of good. | <a href="http://www.elinfierno.org/voces-del-infierno/">8. I was influenced</a> | besides by another feeling, whether base or noble I do not know, but I will speak out to you | <a href="http://www.elinfierno.org/pt/purgatorio/">all my secrets.</a> | I was ashamed of all those others, who, without being better than ordinary people, nay, it is a | <a href="http://www.profecias.name/profecias-de-fatima/">great thing if they</a> | be not worse, with unwashen hands, Mark 7:5 as the saying runs, and uninitiated souls, | <a href="http://www.sanfranciscoinfo.org/san-andres.php">intrude into the most</a> | sacred offices; and, before becoming worthy to approach the temples, they lay claim | <a href="http://www.chiesa-cattolica.net/i-dieci-comandamenti/">to the sanctuary, and</a> | they push and thrust around the holy table, as if they thought this order to be a means of | <a href="http://www.chiesa-cattolica.net/madonna-di-lourdes/">livelihood, instead of</a> | a pattern of virtue, or an absolute authority, instead of a ministry of which we must give | <a href="http://www.igreja-catolica.com/freira/">account. In fact they</a> | are almost more in number than those whom they govern; pitiable as regards piety, and | <a href="http://www.igreja-catolica.com/celibato/">unfortunate in their dignity;</a> | so that, it seems to me, they will not, as time and this evil alike progress, have any | | | <a href="http://www.igreja-catolica.com/parabola/">one left to rule, when</a> | all are teachers, instead of, as the promise says, taught of God, and all prophesy, so that | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/humildade/">even Saul is among</a> | the prophets, according to the ancient history and proverb. For at no time, either now | <a href="http://www.mondieu.info/ascetisme/">or in former days, </a> | amid the rise and fall of various developments, has there ever been such an abundance, as | <a href="http://www.priere.name/penitence/">now exists among</a> | Christians, of disgrace and abuses of this kind. And, if to stay this current is beyond our | <a href="http://www.priere.name/je-vous-salue-marie.php">powers, at any rate</a> | it is not the least important duty of religion to testify the hatred and shame we feel for it. | <a href="http://www.christmasgiftsforyou.net/christmas-card-sayings/">9. Lastly, there is a matter</a> | more serious than any which I have mentioned, for I am now coming to the finale of the | <a href="http://www.nibiruplanetx.info/pl/nibiru/">question: and I</a> |will not deceive you; for that would not be lawful in regard to topics of such moment. I did not, | <a href="http://www.nibiruplanetx.info/it/nibiru/">nor do I now, think</a> | myself qualified to rule a flock or herd, or to have authority over the souls of men. For in | <a href="http://www.realexorcism.net/pt/exorcismo/">their case it is</a> |sufficient to render the herd or flock as stout and fat as possible; and with this object the | <a href="http://www.realexorcism.net/es/posesion/">neatherd and shepherd</a> | | <a href="http://www.sevendeadlysins.eu/it/7-peccati-capitali/">Comforter, even the spirit</a> | will look for well watered and rich pastures, and will drive his charge from pasture to | <a href="http://www.sevendeadlysins.eu/pt/adulterio/">pasture, and allow</a> | them to rest, or arouse, or recall them, sometimes with his staff, most often with his pipe; and | <a href="http://www.feliz-navidad.info/poemas-de-navidad/">with the exception</a> | of occasional struggles with wolves, or attention to the sickly, most of his time will be | <a href="http://www.pecadoscapitales.info/pt/7-pecados-capitais/">devoted to the oak</a> | and the shade and his pipes, while he reclines on the beautiful grass, and beside the cool | <a href="http://www.prophecyfilm.com/sedevacantism/">water, and shakes down</a> | his couch in a breezy spot, and ever and anon sings a love ditty, with his cup by his side, | <a href="http://www.2012endoftheworld.name/is-the-world-going-to-end-in-2012/">and talks to his bullocks</a> | or his flock, the fattest of which supply his banquets or his pay. But no one ever | <a href="http://www.inheaven.name/bible-quotes/">has thought of the</a> | virtue of flocks or herds; for indeed of what virtue are they capable? Or who has regarded their | <a href="http://www.stpatrick.name/encouraging-bible-verses/">advantage as more important</a> | than his own pleasure? 10. But in the case of man, hard as it is for him to | <a href="http://www.stpatrick.name/famous-bible-verses/">learn how to submit</a> | to rule, it seems far harder to know how to rule over men, and hardest of all, with this rule of | <a href="http://www.demonic.name/pl/demon/">ours, which leads </a> | them by the divine law, and to God, for its risk is, in the eyes of a thoughtful man, | <a href="http://www.demonic.name/pt/lucifer/">proportionate to its height</a> | and dignity. For, first of all, he must, like silver or gold, though in general circulation | <a href="http://www.demonic.name/demonic-possession/">in all kinds of seasons</a> |and affairs, never ring false or alloyed, or give token of any inferior matter, needing | <a href="http://www.st-mary.info/mary-magdalene/">further refinement in the fire;</a> | 1 Corinthians 3:12 or else, the wider his rule, the greater evil he will be. Since the | <a href="http://www.our-lady.net/love-is-patient-bible-verse/">injury which</a> | extends to many is greater than that which is confined to a single individual. | <a href="http://www.ghost-videos.info/pt/protestantismo/">11. For it is not</a> | so easy to dye deeply a piece of cloth, or to impregnate with odours, foul or the reverse, whatever | <a href="http://www.dedios.eu/mensajes-de-dios/">comes near to them;</a> | nor is it so easy for the fatal vapour, which is rightly called a pestilence, to infect the air, and | <a href="http://www.santos-catolicos.com/celibato/">through the air</a> | to gain access to living being, as it is for the vice of a superior to take most speedy possession of | | | <a href="http://www.santos-catolicos.com/monja/">his subjects, and</a> | that with far greater facility than virtue its opposite. For it is in this that wickedness especially | <a href="http://www.jesuscristo.name/pt/fotos-de-jesus/">has the advantage</a> | over goodness, and most distressing it is to me to perceive it, that vice is something attractive | <a href="http://www.jesuscristo.name/la-vida-de-jesus.php">and ready at hand,</a> | and that nothing is so easy as to become evil, even without any one to lead us on to it; | <a href="http://www.demonios.info/frases-de-tristeza/">while the attainment</a> | of virtue is rare and difficult, even where there is much to attract and encourage us. And it | <a href="http://www.lasantamaria.org/pt/maria-madalena/">is this, I think, which</a> | the most blessed Haggai had before his eyes, in his wonderful and most true figure: | <a href="http://www.la-virgen.org/virgen-de-las-mercedes/">— Ask the priests</a> | concerning the law, saying: If holy flesh borne in a garment touch meat or drink or vessel, | <a href="http://www.nuestrasenora.org/angelus/">will it sanctify</a> | what is in contact with it? And when they said No; ask again if any of these things touch what is | <a href="http://www.nuestrasenora.org/vocacion/">unclean, does it not</a> | at once partake of the pollution? For they will surely tell you that it does partake of it, and | <a href="http://www.profecias.name/profecias-y-predicciones/">does not continue</a> | clean in spite of the contact. 12. What does he mean by this? As I take it, that | <a href="http://www.tercer-cielo.net/diezmo/">goodness can with difficulty</a> | gain a hold upon human nature, like fire upon green wood; while most men are | <a href="http://www.videos-de-fantasmas.net/poncio-pilato/">ready and disposed</a> | to join in evil, like stubble, I mean, ready for a spark and a wind, which is easily kindled and | <a href="http://www.chiesa-cattolica.net/agnostico/">consumed from its dryness</a> | . For more quickly would any one take part in evil with slight inducement to its full | <a href="http://www.nossa-senhora.org/nossa-senhora-do-carmo/">extent, than in good</a> |which is fully set before him to a slight degree. For indeed a little wormwood most | <a href="http://www.oracao.info/pai-nosso/">quickly imparts its</a> | bitterness to honey; while not even double the quantity of honey can impart its sweetness to | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/deus-e-amor/">wormwood: and the</a> | withdrawal of a small pebble would draw headlong a whole river, though it would be difficult | <a href="http://www.poderosodeus.net/mensagens-de-deus/">for the strongest dam</a> | to restrain or stay its course. 13. This then is the first point in what we have said, | <a href="http://www.objawienia.com/rozaniec/">which it is right</a> | for us to guard against, viz.: being found to be bad painters of the charms of virtue, and still more, | <a href="http://www.objawienia.com/przepowiednie-nostradamusa/">if not, perhaps,</a> | models for poor painters, poor models for the people, or barely escaping the proverb, that we | <a href="http://www.mondieu.info/agnostique/">undertake to heal</a> | others Luke 4:23 while ourselves are full of sores. 14. In the second place, although a man has kept | <a href="http://www.priere.name/notre-pere.php">himself pure from sin,</a> | even in a very high degree; I do not know that even this is sufficient for one who is to instruct | <a href="http://www.arch-angels.info/pl/anioly/">others in virtue.</a> | For he who has received this charge, not only needs to be free from evil, for evil is, in the eyes of | <a href="http://www.arch-angels.info/archangel-gabriel/">most of those under </a> | his care, most disgraceful, but also to be eminent in good, according to the command, | <a href="http://www.baptism-gifts.org/es/bautismo/">Depart from evil</a> | and do good. And he must not only wipe out the traces of vice from his soul, but also | <a href="http://www.baptism-gifts.org/pt/batismo/">inscribe better ones,</a> | so as to outstrip men further in virtue than he is superior to them in dignity. He should | <a href="http://www.creationmovie.net/pt/inquisicao/">know no limits in</a> | goodness or spiritual progress, and should dwell upon the loss of what is still beyond him, | <a href="http://www.creationmovie.net/pt/agnostico/">rather than the gain</a> | of what he has attained, and consider that which is beneath his feet a step to that | <a href="http://www.realexorcism.net/es/exorcismo/">which comes next:</a> | and not think it a great gain to excel ordinary people, but a loss to fall short of what we ought | <a href="http://www.sevendeadlysins.eu/fr/7-peches-capitaux/">to be: and to measure</a> | his success by the commandment and not by his neighbours, whether they be evil, or to | <a href="http://www.the-pope.org/inspirational-bible-verses/">some extent proficient</a> | in virtue: and to weigh virtue in no small scales, inasmuch as it is due to the Most High, | <a href="http://www.the-pope.org/consecration/">from Whom are all things,</a> | and to Whom are all things. Romans 11:35 - 15. Nor must he suppose that the same things are | <a href="http://www.eucaristia.eu/pt/eucaristia/">suitable to all</a> | , just as all have not the same stature, nor are the features of the face, nor the nature of animals, | <a href="http://www.eucaristia.eu/it/prima-comunione/">nor the qualities</a> | of soil, nor the beauty and size of the stars, in all cases the same: but he must consider base | <a href="http://www.imagenes-de-angeles.com/pt/sao-miguel/">conduct a fault in</a> | a private individual, and deserving of chastisement under the hard rule of the law; while in the | <a href="http://www.imagenes-de-angeles.com/poemas-para-el-dia-del-padre/">case of a ruler or</a> | leader it is a fault not to attain to the highest possible excellence, and always make progress | <a href="http://www.imagenes-de-angeles.com/pt/imagens-de-anjos/">in goodness, if indeed </a> | he is, by his high degree of virtue, to draw his people to an ordinary degree, not by the | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/salmos-de-la-biblia/">force of authority, </a> | but by the influence of persuasion. For what is involuntary apart from its being the result of | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/pt/poemas-de-amizade/">oppression, is neither</a> | meritorious nor durable. For what is forced, like a plant violently drawn aside by our | <a href="http://www.la-papa.net/parabola/">hands, when set free</a> | , returns to what it was before, but that which is the result of choice is both most legitimate | <a href="http://www.la-papa.net/pt/frases-legais/">and enduring, for</a> | it is preserved by the bond of good will. And so our law and our lawgiver enjoin upon us | <a href="http://www.regali-di-natale.org/buon-natale/">most strictly that we</a> | should tend the flock not by constraint but willingly. 1 Peter 5:2 - 16. But granted that a man is free from vice, | <a href="http://www.chiesa-cattolica.net/pentecoste/">and has reached</a> |the greatest heights of virtue: I do not see what knowledge or power would justify him in venturing | <a href="http://www.igreja-catolica.com/pentecostes/">upon this office.</a> | For the guiding of man, the most variable and manifold of creatures, seems to me in very| <a href="http://www.igreja-catolica.com/monge/">deed to be the art</a> | of arts and science of sciences. Any one may recognize this, by comparing the work of the | <a href="http://www.priere.name/moise/">physician of souls</a> | with the treatment of the body; and noticing that, laborious as the latter is, ours is more | <a href="http://www.prophecyfilm.com/spiritual-warfare/">laborious, and of more</a> | consequence, from the nature of its subject matter, the power of its science, and the | <a href="http://www.doomsdaytube.com/jehovah-witness-beliefs/">object of its exercise.</a> | The one labours about bodies, and perishable failing matter, which absolutely must be | <a href="http://www.doomsdaytube.com/charismatic/">dissolved and undergo</a> | its fate, Genesis 3:19 even if upon this occasion by the aid of art it can surmount the | <a href="http://www.catholic-saints.net/asceticism/">disturbance within itself,</a> | being dissolved by disease or time in submission to the law of nature, since it cannot | <a href="http://www.catholic-saints.net/gifts-of-the-holy-spirit.php">rise above its own limitations.</a> | 17. The other is concerned with the soul, which comes from God and is divine, and partakes of the | <a href="http://www.2012endoftheworld.name/new-year-quotes/">heavenly nobility</a> | , and presses on to it, even if it be bound to an inferior nature. Perhaps indeed there are other reasons | <a href="http://www.inheaven.name/christian-quotes/">also for this</a> | , which only God, Who bound them together, and those who are instructed by God in such | <a href="http://www.stpatrick.name/bible-verses-about-love/">mysteries, can know,</a> | but as far as I, and men like myself can perceive, there are two: one, that it may inherit the | <a href="http://www.demonic.name/pt/diabo/">glory above by</a> |means of a struggle and wrestling Ephesians 6:12 with things below, being tried as gold in | <a href="http://www.inhell.net/break-up-quotes/">the fire 1 Peter 1:7</a> |by things here, and gain the objects of our hope as a prize of virtue, and not merely as the | <a href="http://www.st-mary.info/prayer-for-healing/">gift of God.</a> | This, indeed, was the will of Supreme Goodness, to make the good even our own, not only | <a href="http://www.rosary.name/attitude-quotes/">because sown in our nature,</a> | but because cultivated by our own choice, and by the motions of our will, free to | <a href="http://www.rosary.name/leadership-quotes/">act in either direction.</a> |The second reason is, that it may draw to itself and raise to heaven the lower nature, by | <a href="http://www.the-prayer.info/how-to-pray/">gradually freeing it</a> |from its grossness, in order that the soul may be to the body what God is to the soul, itself | <a href="http://www.jesuscristo.name/imagenes-de-jesus/">leading on the matter</a> | which ministers to it, and uniting it, as its fellow-servant, to God. 18. Place and time and age and season and | <a href="http://www.elinfierno.org/pt/inferno/">the like are the subjects</a> | of a physician's scrutiny; he will prescribe medicines and diet, and guard against things injurious, | <a href="http://www.elinfierno.org/purgatorio/">that the desires of the sick</a> | may not be a hindrance to his art. Sometimes, and in certain cases, he will make use of | <a href="http://www.lasantamaria.org/maria-auxiliadora/">the cautery or the knife</a> | or the severer remedies; but none of these, laborious and hard as they may seem, is so | <a href="http://www.lasantamaria.org/frases-de-felicidad/">difficult as the diagnosis</a> | and cure of our habits, passions, lives, wills, and whatever else is within us, by | <a href="http://www.la-virgen.org/virgen-del-carmen/">banishing from our compound</a> | nature everything brutal and fierce, and introducing and establishing in their | <a href="http://www.la-virgen.org/tercer-secreto-de-fatima/">stead what is gentle</a> | and dear to God, and arbitrating fairly between soul and body; not allowing the superior | <a href="http://www.sanfranciscoinfo.org/san-juan/">to be overpowered </a> | by the inferior, which would be the greatest injustice; but subjecting to the ruling and | <a href="http://www.santo-rosario.com/humildad/">leading power that</a> | which naturally takes the second place: as indeed the divine law enjoins, which is most | <a href="http://www.santo-rosario.com/pt/terco/">excellently imposed</a> | on His whole creation, whether visible or beyond our ken. 19. This further point does not escape me, that | <a href="http://www.santo-rosario.com/confirmacion/">the nature of all these</a> | objects of the watchfulness of the physician remains the same, and does not evolve out of itself any | <a href="http://www.senordelosmilagros.net/el-hijo-prodigo/">crafty opposition,</a> | or contrivance hostile to the appliances of his art, nay, it is rather the treatment which | <a href="http://www.tercer-cielo.net/derecho-natural/">modifies its subject</a> | matter, except where some slight insubordination occurs on the part of the patient, which | <a href="http://www.videos-de-fantasmas.net/agnostico/">it is not difficult</a> | to prevent or restrain. But in our case, human prudence and selfishness, and the want of | <a href="http://www.oracao.info/oracao-de-sao-jorge.php">training and inclination</a> | to yield ready submission are a very great obstacle to advance in virtue, amounting | <a href="http://www.saofrancisco.org/moises/">almost to an armed</a> | resistance to those who are wishful to help us. And the very eagerness with which we should | <a href="http://www.saofrancisco.org/frases-inteligentes/">lay bare our sickness</a> | to our spiritual physicians, we employ in avoiding this treatment, and show our bravery | <a href="http://www.saofrancisco.org/frases-de-saudades/">by struggling against</a> | what is for our own interest, our skill in shunning what is for our health. 20. For we either hide away our sin, cloaking | <a href="http://www.mondieu.info/pentecote/">it over in the depth</a> | of our soul, like some festering and malignant disease, as if by escaping the notice of men we could | <a href="http://www.christmasgiftsforyou.net/christmas-poems/">escape the mighty eye</a> | of God and justice. Or else we allege excuses in our sins, by devising pleas in defence | <a href="http://www.christmasgiftsforyou.net/christmas-messages/">of our falls</a> | , or tightly closing our ears, like the deaf adder that stops her ears, we are obstinate in refusing to | <a href="http://www.christmasgiftsforyou.net/christmas-wishes/">hear the voice</a> | of the charmer, and be treated with the medicines of wisdom, by which spiritual sickness is | <a href="http://www.creationmovie.net/es/creacion/">healed. Or, lastly,</a> | those of us who are most daring and self-willed shamelessly brazen out our sin before those | <a href="http://www.creationmovie.net/pt/reforma-protestante/">who would heal it,</a> | marching with bared head, as the saying is, into all kinds of transgression. O what | <a href="http://www.eastersunday.eu/pt/pascoa/">madness, if there</a> | be no term more fitting for this state of mind! Those whom we ought to love as our benefactors | <a href="http://www.eastersunday.eu/es/pascua/">we keep off,</a> | as if they were our enemies, hating those who reprove in the gates, and abhorring the righteous | <a href="http://www.nibiruplanetx.info/healing-scriptures/">word; Amos 5:10</a> | and we think that we shall succeed in the war that we are waging against those who are well | <a href="http://www.nibiruplanetx.info/pt/nibiru/">disposed to us by doing</a> | ourselves all the harm we can, like men who imagine they are consuming the flesh of | <a href="http://www.realexorcism.net/aleister-crowley/">others when they</a> | are really fastening upon their own. 21. For these reasons I allege that our office | <a href="http://www.sevendeadlysins.eu/pt/wicca/">as physicians</a> | far exceeds in toilsomeness, and consequently in worth, that which is confined to the | <a href="http://www.sevendeadlysins.eu/pt/religiao/">body; and further,</a> | because the latter is mainly concerned with the surface, and only in a slight degree investigates | <a href="http://www.the-pope.org/sacrilege/">the causes which</a> | are deeply hidden. But the whole of our treatment and exertion is concerned with the hidden | <a href="http://www.true-faith.net/es/fe/">man of the heart,</a> | 1 Peter 3:4 and our warfare is directed against that adversary and foe within us, who uses | <a href="http://www.true-faith.net/pt/fe/">ourselves as his</a> | weapons against ourselves, and, most fearful of all, hands us over to the death of sin. In | <a href="http://www.feliz-navidad.info/regalos-de-navidad/">opposition then,</a> | to these foes we are in need of great and perfect faith, and of still greater co-operation on the | <a href="http://www.imagenes-de-angeles.com/pt/frases-de-aniversario/">part of God,</a> |and, as I am persuaded, of no slight countermanoeuvring on our own part, which must | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/estudios-biblicos/">manifest itself</a> | both in word and deed, if ourselves, the most precious possession we have, are to be duly tended | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/pt/mensagens-de-amizade/">and cleansed and made</a> | as deserving as possible. 22. To turn however to the ends in view in each of | <a href="http://www.pecadoscapitales.info/envidia/">these forms of healing</a> | for this point is still left to be considered, the one preserves, if it already exists, the | <a href="http://www.pecadoscapitales.info/pt/oraculo/">health and good habit</a> | of the flesh, or if absent, recalls it; though it is not yet clear whether or not these will be for | <a href="http://www.prophecyfilm.com/inspirational-quotes/">the advantage of</a> | those who possess them, since their opposites very often confer a greater benefit on those | <a href="http://www.inheaven.name/love-quotes/">who have them,</a> | just as poverty and wealth, renown or disgrace, a low or brilliant position, and all other | <a href="http://www.lasantamaria.org/frases-de-amor/">circumstances, which</a> | are naturally indifferent, and do not incline in one direction more than in another, | <a href="http://www.la-virgen.org/frases-de-amistad/">produce a good or bad</a> | effect according to the will of, and the manner in which they are used by the persons | <a href="http://www.imagenes-de-angeles.com/pt/mensagens-de-aniversario/">who experience them.</a> | But the scope of our art is to provide the soul with wings, to rescue it from the world | <a href="http://www.la-biblia.info/pt/poemas-de-amor/">and give it to God,</a> | and to watch over that which is in His image, Genesis 1:26 if it abides, to take it by the hand, if | <a href="http://www.catholic-saints.net/quotes-about-life/">it is in danger,</a> | or restore it, if ruined, to make Christ to dwell in the heart Ephesians 3:17 by the Spirit: and, in | <a href="http://www.2012endoftheworld.name/mayan-calendar-2012/">short, to deify</a> | and bestow heavenly bliss upon, one who belongs to the heavenly host. 23. This is the wish of our schoolmaster | <a href="http://www.lordjesuschrist.eu/friendship-quotes/">Galatians 3:24 the law</a> | of the prophets who intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and end | <a href="http://www.stpatrick.name/patience/">Hebrews 12:2 of the spiritual law</a> | of the emptied Godhead, Philippians 2:7 of the assumed flesh, Hebrews 2:14 | <a href="http://www.jesuscristo.name/frases-bonitas/">of the novel union</a> | between God and man, one consisting of two, and both in one. This is why God was | <a href="http://www.profecias.name/profecias-de-nostradamus/">united to the flesh</a> | by means of the soul, and natures so separate were knit together by the affinity to each of the | <a href="http://www.videos-de-fantasmas.net/fotos-de-fantasmas/">element which mediated</a> | between them: so all became one for the sake of all, and for the sake of one, our | <a href="http://www.nossa-senhora.org/frases-de-amor/">progenitor, the soul</a> | because of the soul which was disobedient, the flesh because of the flesh which co-operated | <a href="http://www.saofrancisco.org/frases-para-orkut/">with it and shared</a> | in its condemnation, Christ, Who was superior to, and beyond the reach of, sin, | <a href="http://www.stfrancis.name/celibate/">because of Adam,</a> | who became subject to sin. 24. This is why the new was substituted for the old, Hebrews 8:8-13 | <a href="http://www.st-mary.info/cute-quotes/">why He Who suffered</a> | was for suffering recalled to life, why each property of His, Who was | <a href="http://www.rosary.name/quotes-about-moving-on/">above us, was interchanged</a> | with each of ours, why the new mystery took place of the dispensation, due to | <a href="http://www.videos-de-fantasmas.net/frases-para-facebook/">loving kindness</a> | which deals with him who fell through disobedience. This is the reason for the generation and | <a href="http://www.la-papa.net/pt/frases-para-msn/">the virgin</a> | for the manger and Bethlehem; the generation on behalf of the creation, the virgin on behalf of the | <a href="http://www.pecadoscapitales.info/pt/frases-e-pensamentos/">woman, Genesis</a> | 2:7 Bethlehem Luke 2:7 because of Eden, the manger because of the garden, small and | <a href="http://www.2012endoftheworld.name/fr/2012-fin-du-monde/">visible things on behalf</a> | of great and hidden things. This is why the angels Luke 2:14 glorified first the heavenly, | <a href="http://www.stfrancis.name/penance/">then the earthly</a> | , 1 Corinthians 15:49 why the shepherds saw the glory over the Lamb and the Shepherd, why the | <a href="http://www.demonic.name/sad-quotes/">star led the Magi</a> | to worship and offer gifts, Matthew 2:9, 11 in order that idolatry might be destroyed. This is | <a href="http://www.our-lady.net/psalm-23/">why Jesus was baptized</a> | and received testimony from above, and fasted, Matthew 4:2 and was tempted, and | <a href="http://www.ghost-videos.info/life-after-death/">overcame him</a> | who had overcome. This is why devils were cast out, Matthew 10:7-8 and diseases healed, and | <a href="http://www.jesuscristo.name/pt/jesus-cristo/">the mighty preaching</a> | was entrusted to, and successfully proclaimed by men of low estate. 25. This is why the heathen rage and | <a href="http://www.oracionescatolicas.org/frases-de-cumpleanos/">the peoples imagine vain things;</a> | why tree is set over against tree, John 19:17 hands against hand, the one stretched out in self | <a href="http://www.sanfranciscoinfo.org/santo-tomas-de-aquino/"> indulgence, the one </a> | , Genesis 3:6-23 the others in generosity; the one unrestrained, the others fixed by nails, Matthew 27:35 | <a href="http://www.eastersunday.eu/it/pasqua/"> expelling Adam, the other </a> | reconciling the ends of the earth. This is the reason of the lifting up to | <a href="http://www.feliz-natal.net/frases-bonitas/"> atone for the fall </a> | and of the gall for the tasting, and of the thorny crown for the dominion of evil, and of death | <a href="http://www.doomsdaytube.com/the-ten-commandments-list/"> for death, and of darkness for </a> | the sake of light, and of burial for the return to the ground, and of resurrection | <a href="http://www.stfrancis.name/best-quotes/"> for the sake of resurrection. </a> | All these are a training from God for us, and a healing for our weakness, restoring the | <a href="http://www.ourgod.info/names-of-god/">old Adam to the place </a> | whence he fell, and conducting us to the tree of life, from which the tree of knowledge | <a href="http://www.demonic.name/beelzebub/">estranged us, when partaken</a> | of unseasonably, and improperly. 26. Of this healing we, who are set over others, | <a href="http://www.the-prayer.info/our-father-prayer/">are the ministers and fellow-labourers</a> | for whom it is a great thing to recognise and heal their own passions and | <a href="http://www.santos-catolicos.com/fin-del-mundo/">sicknesses: or rather, not really</a> | a great thing, only the viciousness of most of those who belong to this order | <a href="http://www.sanfranciscoinfo.org/santa-rosa-de-lima/">has made me say so:</a> | but a much greater thing is the power to heal and skilfully cleanse those of others, to | <a href="http://www.videos-de-fantasmas.net/pt/fantasmas/">the advantage both of those</a> | who are in want of healing and of those whose charge it is to heal. 27. Again, the healers of our | <a href="http://www.the-pope.org/blasphemy/">bodies will have their labours</a> | and vigils and cares, of which we are aware; and will reap a harvest of pain for themselves from the | <a href="http://www.eucaristia.eu/mensajes-de-cumpleanos/">distresses of others, as one</a> | of their wise men said; and will provide for the use of those who need them, both | <a href="http://www.feliz-natal.net/mensagens-de-natal/"> the results of their own labours</a> | and investigations, and what they have been able to borrow from others: and | <a href="http://www.feliz-natal.net/depoimentos-para-amigos/">they consider none, even</a> | of the minutest details, which they discover, or which elude their search, as having | <a href="http://www.doomsdaytube.com/quotes-to-live-by/">other than an important</a> | influence upon health or danger. And what is the object of all this? That a man may live | <a href="http://www.catholic-saints.net/repentance/">some days longer on the earth,</a> | though he is possibly not a good man, but one of the most depraved, for whom it | <a href="http://www.lordjesuschrist.eu/pictures-of-jesus.php">had perhaps been better</a> | , because of his badness, to have died long ago, in order to be set free from vice, the most | <a href="http://www.lordjesuschrist.eu/tithe/">serious of sicknesses. But</a> | suppose he is a good man, how long will he be able to live? Forever? Or what will | <a href="http://www.stpatrick.name/happiness-quotes/">he gain from life here</a> | , from which it is the greatest of blessings, if a man be sane and sensible, to seek to be set free? | <a href="http://www.ourgod.info/fruits-of-the-spirit/">28. But we, upon whose</a> | efforts is staked the salvation of a soul, a being blessed and immortal, and destined | <a href="http://www.ourgod.info/family-quotes/">for undying chastisement</a> | or praise, for its vice or virtue—what a struggle ought ours to be, and how great skill | <a href="http://www.inhell.net/purgatory/">do we require to treat,</a> | or get men treated properly, and to change their life, and give up the clay to the spirit. | <a href="ht
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